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columbus it is a new opportunity for indian people to tell there's something that has to do i think a very important point to people because there are always two sides to the story and that there's not just one way of looking at history but millions funding for this program has been provided by the corporation for public broadcasting and by the financial support of viewers like you additional funding has been provided by the rockefeller foundation and the native american public broadcasting consortium aw well i
will tell the returning team and then and saying anything
annie just a project i remember going to school and being taught the columbus discovered america is a land populated by savages who had been conquered defense official version of history and we sing for a better life my family my grandparents especially in its
long before christopher columbus set sail before spain was an issue and this is our story is my story is a story of how a couple people that's right you were lucky you had the man the state's online etsy rock port's various all in way you'll find footprints work that whole lot i just feel that they used instead to watch the sun all right here go see it still there there's
footprints their pockets in queens you know and it was framed on down here always tell a story from the beginning or elders used to tell us we're telling the story is really knowing the experience so way things have always been it's a clipper i stay with my grandparents in they work here long she would tell me alone loughner coattails sin she told me that one day two spider sisters came out of our hole that one and they saw the ad that surrounds an icon the mais c'est beautiful made sense the pain young
trees cedar trees on their rounds due to fire so they went back in and told that which and that's the chief of the tribe and it's so pretty up there why don't we move out here everything is so beautiful and for their religion for the fifteenth clear to me that he thought that under in the south for eighteen years of the founders could not have to have
characters that i had to and they had to talk to the rainbow spider and how do you you just feel like a ride home after their emergence from that play squash our ancestors settled fines center of the swerve the metal plates or spiritual landscape it's here that they've created one of the most highly evolved civilizations ever known cities like chocolate candy mesa verde asked and condition stand in testimony to a complex and sophisticated
culture pop culture less information about the time of christ and of course are picked up steam in the centuries between nine hundred and about thirteen fifty eighty one the largest towns were occupied and the most architecturally complex cities were built an the global culture extended at a zenith from our last night as new mexico to las vegas nevada and an east to west rage and from durango colorado durango mexico marked the south is a very vast weight please
please please i'm praying somebody comes to us the connection between what had been told as
children is that people need to sweat and needs to bring some of that we walk the place that particular spot and we go back to those places we know that the people are in some ways and that we can actually take on themes spirit and that's another incredible source of power it's only supposed to be for the traditional homes the red yellow and white music lives and sandstone canyons which friedman whose closeness is an agrarian
way of my the link is there between our land and keep our homes our art and our religion it is in the colors of our skin and hair and a clothing and food just as it is in the natural earth and sky all around makes hubble culture so unique is its special relationship to pulling the mountains the deserts in the rivers resources to be exploited for secret lansky is we belong to land is as part of a ceremonial members in literally the shrine systems that exist in the center of the community and our mountaintops who's for people say what
defines who you are and where you are now but i think very much because the burden as well as the destination for the us to push back to the old members pottery and you see pictures of people and utility petroglyphs am and rock art and you see that occurrences in people's lives were being recorded and for is their presence there that really indicates that people are aware of where they came from and who they are and they were leaving town images for other people to say whose family has their own designs and with their in their their mothers they're grandmas that this is the way they painted so it's june it's just passed down here now it's just we just keep was doing it when my mother was realistic i told her that my daughter had caught the
phoenix and i told her i said she she did a pottery with that design that is one of our oldest is science and i have my mother and i told her own mother you come before ever through your design it's nice that you know people are always see it that you have to act with their cell phones we were clear some of our ancestors moved closer to the rio grande so that their villages of stone and adobe are strung along the river and its tributaries to feed on the spring water in the west other groups concentrate resources in action
and fantasy the movement through the land by the people on those significant and it's all linda holmes talked with the insolence town in maine comes founding fathers lewis and fertilizes them a career out of everything he's going to live this is a farming and supplementing the army by something awful is
thin because this is a semi arid country low rainfall they spent much of their time as they pray for good weather and other times they spent theirs thing to ask for animals in winter months they have so that they hope that will be available to the consumer it's been whoa whoa whoa
as whip thank you i mean on the eve of the first contact with european culture the problem people comprised of peaceful highly successful civilization two hundred and fifty thousand people speaking a sovereign bank it's it was a multitude of different customs and culture
deciding our dreams and our dark knight time new orleans that white men come from the south and to stand up in town but this man ortego co occurring our batteries used in its agreement with steven the disdain for both us where police are mines that was a bad when kids which would tie and i think it's going to pass the past left the winter season sweetwater lines between children and nighttime violence is going to come in
one afternoon in may fifteen thirty nine in this and the problem of how we could the world was changed forever because of a spanish in this country of seven series of less than fifty years ago voyage of columbus this dream of golden city's waiting to be plundered drove them thousands of miles across east of sandy sparked amount ironically the first white man to contact will people was a black slave mr benito was to guide for free markets and he says extradition to find the seven cities of gold that was the prison facilities that any worse i'm representing
are videos that had ever have thought the visitors ask insurers out of food or shelter pedophile and also had been hearing rumors of servers up and several ministers were slave owners joel the display of this although for the bus service was cynical and the rumors of slave raids have long since in terms of the election over the centuries the actual events have receded until only thing that comes really the stories of giants and magic rebels
but then polish history is history through story of history collection few a whole in china to make great stuff that has been done to an island and that i'm going to do next that's it rico scrooge is doing what you did that's an online a few tracks are there's the threat of being letters of mad scientists guard that he had to do that and go or which of the
two feathered one was more than one in a couple of public health and that that point there's only two civil war truth from the border guards that this is part of our people to the fifth this prism appears on three phone going higher and i need to go alone and to commit crimes and caitlin that and now to do about thirty two of the novel a deliver a dual a bigger hit on a good one the sunni treated as that in the cold like any other spy they can find him in a house outside the troubles but one morning the
invasion of ninety seven he cried on friday about as the guinea coast and he turned around and spit back to mexico without seeing the country he called siegel it's like a firsthand knowledge did not prevented them from inventing the tale of the seven cities of siegel segal not passed the appearance of the city's bigger than the city of mexico and eighties at least of that seven seconds and there is much about mrs weiss an exaggeration soon ignited spanish political one year later and fifteen forty an expedition led by another changes to really define the tradition of the seventh is
one of about three hundred spanish soldiers thousand mexican indians guns cannons crossbones and what's fun in the car was an important time on the journey oh of
course they did just that they violated these of the ritual pep band that was a terrible thing to do then there's an inevitable act of european military victory spanish person says yes after hearing about your rival of the spanish people of vehicles was sent to the most important to them including a man who the world would come to know as
the man with the mustache special interest to perhaps treacherous official things they thought this was a war change the world captain and in the company of a facility plans to do situation themselves bring him up to his country to show them the place first but at the same time the idea of the spaniards was that maybe there was something that they were looking for further at least from sony the problems were not the cities of gold a spanish saw what the collapse of the myth of the seven cities of scene where we meet a spanish ripe for an even bigger line
the legend was a land where a rich lord split along the river barges and eight assistant principal constance spanish demands incidentally cardenas for years many years
sort of the flip side so that there was great confusion around in a horse and taste those who escaped as a continuous level not been an ally unless you're somewhat women religious an escape but not the specter of the countryside things that strangers the not respect the bees publicity what were abandoned like so many problems with lead to future people specified by death and destruction on another pushed on to campus only to find the computer was yet another and without called spanish interest weekly weigh in
the extradition treaty between the problems to peaceful yet another fifty years maybe it is back then it was a disaster you know his expedition might better be turning pages really it was horror novel bad behavior so what does call her conquer what name as the victim of a victimizer what is the proper name of the man who brings a bewildering stone of people wagons
strange reagan's philosophy of fear into your beautiful peaceful place what right so in true image and they use the cycle of unspeakable a secular age and does not know he does the name col currier it's not passive is the name of the conqueror is the name of a victimizer is hunger and loss and one morning and getting it four hundred soldiers columnists priests mexican indian servants and black slaves gathered on the banks of the rio grande hundreds of miles to the south of public country if you
sanction section consists of new mexico discovery already occupied by europeans arrived discovery to do was as they wished when the spanish arrived in mexico they established their first capital in san juan party it was clear that this group of inventors was different from another six petitions and other families russian supplies we see countries
and thousands of horses cattle sheep pigs and chickens the spanish are here to stay and julie coming monday south i suppose that's where they were coming from each pueblo where they stop that they were driven off and then when they came to send one they were on the other side of the river and that people had heard about them being driven up from the other places so they were going to do the same and they had a meeting but they're not government that they had they dan was one who had compassion and he talked to his people only so why do we want to treat them in this manner that they have families they have children to raise they have to feed their families and we can't beat me one that can stay on
and that their race or family that then raise a crop the reason we call focal indians is because when the spaniards came through a country we found our indian people living in towns and in villages so liberal is a spanish word word which means town or village it classified as though the classification the new course was pueblo and insular town of the region one of the first things the spanish top a sad one people was the dance of the morrison christians and dance that celebrated the invincibility of spanish arms and european religion although the diocese changed over four hundred years the mother gino are still being danced in san juan on christmas day they are
marketed as is known to us as much sooner and represents christianity in india named best girl represents the cain and the little girl that there's this man represents the pleasant virgin mary ambassadors and businesses that present and beaten on this is how we celebrate the birth of jesus christ it is coming into the uk level basically realize is that they're not only have our traditional ally but we'll let the ceo of the traditional or catholic themselves have any new characters
right me to see the way it crushed into it the ideas as well if you make it with the missionaries i guess the cutesy way a missionary came in nigel cliff and menu the wire they will i mean to christianize their people here a crop here we have them also were the people who came to see whether there were families this was not at this case was not settled by spaniards who were tied to being farmers tied to the crafts or anything like that they were basically people want to root colonize and data and use innovative labor source year the
various directions to bring these issues of the navy chickens cannot be excited made it out to sea they in all of the dissenters were been killed spanier says the blankets by force their poor intern women start making hole in their babies' press and the demands of a small spanish voters want you thought the bottom of your spine workers pour out of the house spent you saw a lot of soldiers when who did use were not moved quickly to crash this rebellion saw divorce would rather simply tackled that many of the spanish soldiers who were there were either thrown off the nascent her and suddenly heard i think indians his
brother came in but the idea began with the idea of getting back at these people who had killed his brother and killed some spaniards led by simply unstoppable seventy spanish soldiers arrived with the steep slopes of her and methodically prepared against clinton's muskets crossbows still sort of course is the actor and people were really is the center for some people order to keep less upset if i mean what i take those places we saw the children's authors or suffocated but this was a lawyer and hacked to pieces their limbs edson bodies
spanish was dissing women two hundred americans women and children speaking spanish but he's one of the twenty five years of age i sentenced to have one foot cut off and to twenty years of personal server to them is between the ages of twelve and twenty five i sentence like what's twenty years of personal subject shocked by the severity of the senses the spanish settlers brought charges against sonja a consultant for were found guilty find and banished from new mexico still these european invaders continue their efforts to lose the few world of seventeenth century spain people we were
considered property of announcement came as servants we were forced to rape a cross in the region since then ruins of an invisible well and it's too visible missionaries the church and the state really going to carry it had the syllable i would say the political perspective one who had to subjugate politically and then a feudal system and the church is us to crystallize to convert and to save souls and these two coincided as income him as the income in the system was formalized it and implemented when i could use in the neighbor and there were the russians which we commission raised a christian is
in comedy and then to be putting into systems were the basic economic systems that were imposed on on native people of new mexico and all this and it becomes this these invaders who begin a tiny wild things are going to change or now are you can't you can't believe you're probably you can travel as far as you want anymore because they don't want to leave in your area they begin to cut up the land and for the pueblo people they were told how much of the land was now the years so you get the idea only i think people are for yourself what an incredible strange foreign notion you know when we talk about that and the world the spanish imposed a government system on the pueblo's law by governors reagan the support of tribal
life and sixteen twenty three the spanish gave each local governor mccain as a symbol of authority one of eight was symbolic gestures there has elevated this whole notion of the war status of sovereign entities over the last four hundred years has been the issuance of of cain's by various sovereigns of the world the traditional passing of authority and only on one level officials is a passing of of mccain's which symbolize the sovereign status of our governments i
remember others in my family talking about a nickel on the mission and ackerman was being instructed me a hero and me equal until the criminal to watch it and yet ironically it now or three hundred years later so dance inside the commission hearing christianity dressed him up into northern new mexico one of the first things they did was to build churches and being utilized in labor to build those churches and later on to maintain as churches and the labour was not voluntary the price of my wishes aside for the priest in which they would plant corn cotton acorn squash and
things of that sort to maintain a missionary households that you just have a theological position probably superstition in witchcraft so from time to time people were punished for that and i think the church with that was go turns with creating a unified and it was at sort of perspective from the evil in the world do the program involves the attempted destruction of all semblance of the indigenous diligence the filling in of kilos the destruction and burning at umass the outlawing of the dancers the reporting the
traditional going to disney world three missions that were built on hope and during that period of time the priests were so isolated that they pretty much made their own worlds and they mate claims women reaching puberty they were said to be the first to have these young women usually age of puberty before they were for that the girls were free to participate in the rest of the social level and tuitions of the hopi and that is apparently according to the story was the last straw yellow
your in their efforts to destroy our religion the missionaries try to separate science from the knowledge of their fathers and daughters from the world of their mother's christianity would have destroyed our country our relationship to the earth mother herself we did not consent to the eradication of our world fb if i can be a computer or couple abandoned sixty and seventy two was one of the victims of the great contraction of the world it was a time he was out of breath that was the time of the raid seized warm weather thousands of people die in a greek than
three years the club has been harvested last year sixteen sixty eight and the indians they wished upon kind of on the ropes and the ravines and the hubble's update year thousands died of starvation and other problems the children were the first to go live in the society of its past and its future to the missionaries and thirty on isis and it had a tremendous impact on local economies for example attacks with a crime it varies from season to season and some seasons were you able to reap a lot of quantity as not to do that on sunday or spin maintenance of hunting venice and sundays here is not so i didn't have a
tremendous impact on the economy and many people were not even as well as they used to choose the master of the force upsetting the balance between the peoples and their nomadic neighbors the raids on the problems came with increasing frequency and then there was disease a disease that struck the indian and european spanish attributed the deaths to witchcraft by pablo sorcerers and sixteen seventy five the spanish governor finally he took the course of the missionaries and arrested forty seven of lead sorcerers and brought them to trial naturally the case was against them and flirt men were convicted back and the others were to be whipped publicly none of them and that was what
was a man whose name was voting and spaniards cotton ok he began to think about what should be done to retaliate decided to log on to past couple far away from the center of our spanish activity and that's nice to be given credit for giving protection to him and all the others that were planned in the ruble that decision to fight global will probably talk a lot of song searching i want her input from various factions preschoolers various clans various leaders within oh tonight all the problems tonight each of these sovereign nations in a
united effort to drive the spaniards out of their lands there must have been an awful lot of suffering that occurred to eventually grow them to point to but there was a very ingenious plan for assad to communicate this plan to have the rebellion it consisted of messengers running to other areas pueblos in new mexico and into arizona and informing them that this is going to happen is that they would create their own little rebellion within the religion and joey insurance they make a quarter of a fiber some nods in which would signify the number of days and was went with the rebellion of what was taken from me by the sweat his youth under the panel do you see
as the sun came up and not with the bow tie and on the last day that but not wasn't high would be the day the action you have a trial and consequently this was the beginning the first successful revolt and native american organization and its european sixteen eighteen
years at various churches of escape and so the sense of doom that the indians and non indians with the congregation at church and there was retaliation for what the church and civil authorities was the people most villages the churches were destroyed and that people who are accepting says catholic colleges we're going to close up low income and within three
days over four hundred spectators men women and children twenty one of mexico's crews working churches houses saints and the symbols of christianity does spanish government and most of the colonists were trapped inside the siege by thousands of warriors indians from the border so they can send one scene i want to make from the veto something and the story that all the spaniards that say about god and some familiar with it and that they don't go out there you may never know
but soon decided that the only group that has been cut up into the seventh day of the nine days since egypt's uncontested more people assemble on to the police and the capitol began to die because he has an article about the degree that it was this notion that facts and invoking the name of the birds and he routed around and that's more than republicans forty seven england's work and research house execute but finding ourselves permissions with very few tourists the condition where it is necessary that we have decided to go
to the public because i have a chapter in the state assigned to wipe out all the spaniards and they stood to one side under siege worked on the standards silently fall about heading south on the remaining horses but sessions added we are at science we appeal to those of us that have killed do not matter who the spaniards are going and now we surely this week might be a period after the revolt it's recorded that the pueblo people i went down to the river cleanse themselves they did a lady out without many of the things that the spaniards brought down
orchard tried to hear there's a very joyous time to time we'll be learning what happened last in the past and so it's a threat that continues that flow of the other people to come and they knew that they were completely safe during the twelve years that the public world was free from european domination the spanish center number of armed to me in spanish there will not be much of a public letter left over at the pueblo people of sixteen ad about taking action
they did they acted to save the country save their integrity of communities and to say they're satisfied with hispanics were rapidly whether in a way were there on slots on their religion and politics and they're very independent and so it's in that sense the sense that public culture survives lead into the twentieth century that we must honor and commemorate the public revolt sixteen at there was no mention in the textbooks in iran traditionally been mentioned the country there was never any of things said about our survival
our efforts to survive and i think it's only now that her story with ths law gives like freedom is like the indian probe will revolt of sixteen ad gave lie we exist today as indian communities because of the revolt now a couple people knew it was the time to be patient and determined to be enduring is now we have people were to keep struggling for the existence of all things in creation the report brought twelve
years of freedom for our people and sixty ninety two don diego devises visited upon close with promises of peace and our leaders agreed to let the spanish returns it's you're instantly at a so called peace for re conquest of new mexico was so complete with indians dressed in hollywood customs and looking happy to see their coffers unfortunately the real re conquest began when the products returned for the settlers priests and candice bergen the bike is back in new mexico has been affected as one of those conflicts that we know on the right this was just a simple score novel however you know we managed to survive
because it is the first thing that the panthers did after a long night of sage of the early odd side effect was to order some ad lawyers for the shot some early shots and the remaining four hundred mostly women and children in order to be partitioned up status families to services two years later another revolt broke out they put down by governor gregoire because while individual photos would continue to assist whenever their way of life was threatened the spanish and regain control but they also learned tolerance and respect
as well the relationship with the spanish and the world was still privately about this one's having problems we're now abandoned apartment world once held fifty thousand people and a hundred problems was reduced to fourteen thousand people and twenty two the homeland is a war with the very numerous to mention the heat from apache indians popular christian england's can come to our goats back to see themselves a danger that people who'd known that the north is a hill attention by the eighteenth
century violent raids have become too common but other nomadic tribes the navajos youths and here's committee who were not on the mounted on the descendants of spanish horses but armed with french guns in charge of the person just made it more difficult for the pueblo indians too too long to secure their problems very an outside intervention it enabled them out to waiters to appear and disappear very quickly and make them haile the system as waiters as well as as warriors the spaniards and double people's needed to pull every resource at their command to protect themselves effectively and the need is basic survival for defend themselves to defend themselves among the northern part of
the class lawyers and because of that many many different kinds of engagement switch they were called upon either individually acting as part of the spanish coalition the cat was especially and also that he was became very well known for their fighting ability well as within the public in these finals after sixteen and who wasn't in any way an alliance of convenience say at osha protection against the the plains indians or the indians were gonna spit out on the plains and this is face voters and the villages in venezuela's he spent together the alliance of pueblo indians and hispanic farmers and ranchers will blast into the twentieth century but its roots went far beyond the
need for defense i think the lines between public people in spanish really was part of working with land when the spanish came to southwest gould in the wealthy green riches to be had he still exists and i finally to survive and three can really had to cooperate or find out how the people were going to you know if it means the symbol of the place where people connect what was happening right after the revolt was a search for common ground that common ground was flown all furnished primarily through trying to establish an understanding of each other's ways and also when they were seven through a process of coming to terms with with ruth living in this place which is new mexico there
was indeed a new kind of spaniards primarily an individual who was looking indeed to make new mexico their home after the spanish returned they recognized the ball lands through a series of land grants this legal recognition of our lands the center place of our world would be crucial to our existence and the centuries to come under the spanish flag we were well protected by and of the year lots of indians this room and his policies we were giving land grants which we still have today cannot be touch and tone but reaching an accommodation with the church was far more difficult for clergy and civil authorities still sought to replace our traditional
believes with christianity again there was a reassertion catholicism the pressure to convert a number of different laws attempt to convert practice tradition and that of course very different each pablo evolved and developed a specific kinds of things that coast working on it those scenes you use even to this day my
grandmother about every site a catholic prayers in spanish initials in spanish or she goes to sleep that yet and grandmother were going to keep nine shows her dances she when she relieved when she really want to pray she prays an indian she script she prays and t was one of the things that we can be thankful for is a foresight for our forefathers did to take our religion underground so that what we now have today what has been preserved our language or ritual or ceremony is in our songs that they took all of that underground and developed a level of secrecy that still isn't there is very much a part of our way of life so that much of what takes place as the most meaningful in our lives ceremony is often closed to the public is often performed at nights well the public because in most hispanics settlers depended on subsistence
agriculture there was money to be made in new mexico through trade trade with the same command she's apaches and navajos was a tax on the colonies survival every autumn a great trade fair was held outside of the house human beings for one of the most important commodities are these traders in seventeen seventy six the going rate for an indian girl between twelve and twenty years old was two horses in the blank young men were substantially cheaper the comanches the two captives double meaning and use the people as they sort of medium of trade with the spanish for the goods they wish to obtain ma times they would trade with claims tribes or other captives that the plains tribes hold
those captives were then inducted into the spanish households and this really is where the nsa though amnesty so population began to blossom in new mexico doing that that century historically any sales report referred to all throughout the tribal west indians indians were captured and ransom by the spaniards and brought into new mexico and placed on him mission community select the nation communities are to go up the steep andes those are indians that settled into communities but the breed's two worlds the hispanic world in the indian world most pueblos had achieved a stable relationship with the spanish government the catholic church and they're hispanic and the musical neighbors the stability and eighteen twenty one with
mexico's independence well the mexican period was short it was smart with the loss of wetlands the mexican period for all intensive purposes was dire because of the change in the way that people also handled parties special and is being disseminated in some ways dissatisfaction with the mexican government was not restricted to the poconos
and emitting thirty seven an alliance of local leaders in the cities and hispanics flamed into a rebellion and jim i was crushed it in his old leader jose gonzalez and for one brief moment at the new mexico's governor was executed but the conflict between rich and for recruiting and would become even more severe after the americans invaded new mexico affinity for the sixth get a grandmother who listened to many of the stories of her grandparents and her great grandparents one time and as little girl i went to her bedroom and i saw a saint and its its always to say that i thought was the ugliest his it was well you know when you're a child it's kind of burned out working and it
you can really see the face you can see the prize but she it's a figure of a say in and i asked my crime eisenhower can say look so ugly how can you keep that you have all these other saints and as she told me that was a scene that was thrown out of the church injuring them with identity forty seven the rebellion of thirty to forty seven that took place here at taos pueblo was a result of art hospital people here haven't very strong feelings regarding the imposition of different way of life again here in and is part of the country our cost for leadership here to reverse years ten about the takeover by the nastiest government of disparities through last armed struggle of a lot of people as beginning january fifteenth under the leadership of hamas full metal parts for this ad on a group of
hispanics anti socialist surrounded the house of the american government instead of being with his family governor recently killed themselves but what americans in terms of the annals of news spread so did the rebels is no more in other parts of mexico armed with artillery and modern guns us army set off from santa fe to answer this challenge to american authorities in battles at work and the other an umbilical platform beyond group of local men and hispanic farmers was easily defeated and forced to flee tactic house in a fortified government would have protected them so many times from command you break through it the americans were not intimidated but the adobe walls they surrounded the public's been deployed there are two really began to reduce their villages rocket
many of the women and throw her in here to flip and in terms of the truth the tunnels were dug from the village form the walls of a village on the second day of the defenders cable and sent the women and children to the church but any hopes of sanctuary were quickly dispelled by kevin kline and so when the soldiers came in there was a lot of fighting that occurred fighting broke out in some ways the church and i set that the saints out because anyone seems to burn and one of my aunts scott that's a theme that's how we haven't seen over a hundred fifty people died in the house revolted and the american conquest of new
mexico was complete many religious leaders were taken this have under the pretense of of negotiations and talks with representatives of the united states government we're all american conquest of mexico didn't have a respite from violence rates by nomadic tribes that allow the population increases once again after reaching its lowest level in history any team to fifty seven thousand survivors in a world that once contained fifty thousand people unfortunately the practice of indian slavery was accepted and continue to buy the americans even after the
civil war and the freeing of the slaves american progress on meeting in mexico million pounds for nine years and he has written off its mountains the transcontinental railroads in the nation and that has a lot of their wild boys that's very good inside sotheby's
the world following upon the railroad and even before that since served to reduce the land base of the pebble people's have been accustomed to using the problems of which have traditionally been left alone move goods services and cattle those thoughts on certain areas less close their ears to the aggressive expansion those activities and policies of nowhere to us along the rio grande the new anglo american immigrants pushed hispanic farmers off their lands us courts do except the old spanish land grants to the pueblo's and to their hispanic neighbors all that was required was a simple survey and a review of the graham a simple procedure that was used to defraud the pueblo people
and hispanics out of hundreds of thousands of it because literally located all go theoretically ended the mexican american war then that's provisions of a treaty the right of the public people were to be protected and respect it just as they had been under the government of mexico the pebbles were legal citizens but the words some disadvantages because we were not recognize as american indians on to be a very poor trade and into course that this was an act which was proposed for other indian tribes to protect them against land speculator and trade issues mccord encourage vietnam indians to to settle in to be a well within the exterior boundaries of the indian pueblos in it so clear there were something like
three thousand non indians who squandered on indian land and now they they really are refused to give up and to to go out of the reservation even if they were as the government not only strip so relations were taken to actively joined in the senate in nineteen oh six president roosevelt created the course national forest it's hard there's a touch of those tricky things this is it is
one winter and i stayed there seven years they've taught us indian ways where they said we must get so i remember that where it means like you know it was a warm summer evening the train station to my family indian couldn't speak english language just trying i was a white
man i wore white man's clough i was very happy to know that the government decided to everyday americans though he's boarding schools remove the you know for the most part of education show so with the parents to keep them away from their own cultural influences come into the river in those experiments especially in the eighties when the pass that said we will be trouble lies indians and i think that what you said because i was like i'm it machine or pulverized family and culture the manifest destiny of the nation has moved up to and sometimes over or
through indian people like the spanish before then the american congress decided the pueblo's could only progressive our religion was erratic a new wave of missionaries was unleashed this time they were protestants and rather than missions they built schools to teach our children how to speak english and reject the ways of their mothers and fathers recipe again these chickens it's the gaza settlements are with their own mission of civilizing indian and making them couldn't questions about it roy keane sixties they decided to bring missionaries in competition with each other and different kinds of
the nomination in competition with each other to see to get their own territory of indians too civilized and christianized my father sang it were seen all the time and there was always that one day on monday there was these young women engineers coming with a little about the state and he was a big draw and so my mother went to the door and they just say i'm sorry but we are catholic and so that my thoughts on that i'm coming there let them come in there the music but it hear music says i'm coming up and be contaminated we didn't know any better we might you know we we might tell in return and then so so then she led a main and so that they started playing their own music and i say it that i liked and he said i said listening listening to have to the music and they were talking to us about about you know that's an end of cut bait
that they don't understand it when i got a bit better than they do it at the beginning of the twentieth century children under attack the modern world with all its one reason probably twenty ones isolated part of the vanishing american indian was created it was only a matter of time they stand before a native cultures were swept away by the marchers process tso has been uneven the birth of the modern world have arrived at our doorsteps in trains cars and to
responses as anthropologist photographers and visitors flock to see our customs before they disappear but our people refused to vanish because i knew the beauty of the pope a way of life generosity and selfishness is one of the greatest that is it hard and in people talk and especially in my family because my mother and father always saying never refuse a stranger never refuse a person when they come to the house those are the things that we had before columbus can be for education was put upon us and those are the things that i call survive in columbus some of the smooth return to win when they knew that these things coming on the city and you can
be canoed queens have to be important and to me to create and then sweeping npr team sweeping buyers are helping to last to bring them on they finally came i don't get this wonderful sensation of walking through the crowds here into stanley tucci peter the truman years whether we wanted it or not the us government decided that our culture or hurt which would have to be destroyed before we could progress more boarding schools were built so that all children will be forced to learn the white man's ways and forget those of their parents are we went to us grew at a new school are set up at his group
are some went to ask oh and another places many of us were taken away from home during the time when our cultural was it that it's our money to speak many of the elders were still living and i feel that they know away from home are we lost out on how many of the teaching is that that our elders shark would the pass on to the people are going to want to try yes there were some negative things happening in the indian schools because a lot of them were not allowed to proclaim the language and punished very severely first became them and they were caught speaking the language i went to the day school here in san juan and then from fifth grade we get sent to the boarding school in santa fe
then i entered santa fe board in school i didn't like that all night tennis when he was lonely when you got a bird you have a nice clean sheets waiting for you a nice beat but their shrill grandfather additional grandma get to sit on there and listen to the story as well columbus goes back to europe and claims that he found a new world right thing columbus have to make such a claim well we're thrilled to be hacked that this was a new world that he found this quote was not lost to palm beach today and a non ending
that's good he knows that he is holding only you know and that he will vote for you if you don't take us with the us government had taken sixty years to realize that we were native americans and entitled to the protection of our lands and waters in another in the nineteen twenties in congress
the failure of protestant missionaries to eliminate native villages led to yet another assault on a lot of the religious crime squad violation of the constitution us government illegal until the old customs and in practices are broken up among these people we cannot hope for a great amount of secret this is perhaps one of the greatest what's going on i will not attempt to say that i firmly believe that it is the list of the rebels system of the country our most fundamental right his weapon and it's actually going on why our religion is sacred and it's more important to us and anything else in our life and the religious beliefs
and ceremonies and forms a prayer of each of our most are as tall as the world and they are holy week we're going into this have not consented to abandon the government was tampering with something very and the insincere in the minds of the public people because the religion so melissa dances are at the heart of of who we are in this art lesson that people are going to take care of themselves and protect themselves so very often what happens is another the intent that this is one thing when the result is just the opposite because it just forces people to clam up even more to guard themselves even further than than ever before the leadership of the all indian pueblo council and widespread public support defeated these threats and by the nineteen thirties the policy of the bureau of indian affairs under john collier had changed
for the first time to cia estimated that it was good an honor to be in but at the same time the building and the fairest tried to impose its political system and federal rules and regulations on our way of life and we are here we are now there was a time that the recall issue gravity driven into them because a year drought that occurred that you know minds are able to manage that drought location shooting various pasture lands that somebody else came imposed a certain quota us and limitations on grazing capacity on top that were external thing that they had to live with them so that was a great period of great time at the station migrants are these juries talk about
the survival even of indian people and he would always say that it's there's no question that we're sending people are going to survive but the more important question that we should be asking themselves is how and that i answered to that hall is the extent to which we continue to emit maintain the rights and powers of a sovereign entity i see stuff like other native americans the public people's defended the united states in its wars at home women and children aged in to support the boys in the front and the world and but i was with the first infantry regiment were ambushed machine guns started firing all around if you go by the
time i looked up your japanese all around with their own life and then they walk we walk you walk along for long let's go back if we could go home and then there's one so why did we go why did the accent so many indians drafted you might say to be in the armed forces when there's two words when we on steele wars have to go we had hoped that were award to a then all possibilities of other awards but it didn't come out that way and not i thought that if any of our boys had to go to work other wars they should have to right to vote for the
people who said i'm not there we had to sue the state of new mexico before we got the right to vote in nineteen forty eight but the change is such a motion by world war two what haven't even more profound impact on the global world or pueblo people paid an additional price to defend the country lands from sunup afonso pablo were taken to create los alamos national laboratory the top secret research center which developed the atomic bomb to uranium was discovered at laguna pueblo and bulldozers earth movers and dynamite created a vast people i knew armed forces veterans roger roger
many had sold their livestock leading m blume because they like this could handle livestock and a full time job so now often i hear it i wish i hadn't sold my livestock i envy you because since two thousand are the things that the old timers used to tell us don't ever sell your lifestyle because it's food on your table and clothes on your back when the going gets tough in the nineteen fifties the us government attempted to terminate its treaty responsibilities for all crime all people and turning ministration over to the states at the same time the bureau of indian affairs
began a program to relocate indians to urban centers across the country i had an uncle who was part of the relocation program who has lived in oakland for over forty years that feeling at the time was that they're going to do the best they could for their children but one of the devastated outcomes of that is the offspring has rejected their parents in a very bitter towards their parents because they never gave them an opportunity to learn about quantity never have an opportunity to learn the language i think that until the nineteen seventies but in a way the realities of making a living or finding a way to stay in the bubble was very difficult policy said go away nineteen fifty it was we take you away with the relocation of germination policy
it's been the us government's efforts to destroy native culture has finally ended in the nineteen seventies was the recognition that we were capable of determining guilt and destinies the return of thousands of lyric marked the first time the us government actually gave the land back to her native people rather than just providing compensation this victory can't sixteen humans rather than a community are determined to maintain its sacred relationship to believe it wasn't until the nineteen seventies and was highly competitive house announced what was a time of celebration i receive my grandmother crying my grandpa decrying the house
it was at night and i heard her crying in they said we never have to worry about people just creating your area and everywhere might my older brother and i've david we're flashing a light often on the porch light because you're so happy i think the symbol of perseverance is indeed and this was four people and enduring great great difficulties and persevering in just four years secret secret areas yakima people have come to worship and a starkly beautiful law will flow of the map i sent are pablo was built over a thousand years ago yet in nineteen eighty seven the secret
places were made part of the national park and exposed to the influx of tourists lamb is critical to the survival of the public people in this day and age because i as alice put it unless we can bequeath to the children a place in which they may plant their feet as well as her crops or whatever they want to plant then the community will to solve them though scatter like leaves in the autumn for centuries our ancestors have successfully defended our culture religion and lands against the attacks of the spanish mexican and american governments but today we face perhaps our greatest challenge how to maintain
our existence as a couple people in a rapidly changing world replete with alcohol drugs days of an encroachment and television at the same time the traditional sort of the women are changing as they need to enter the workforce when i was growing up as a child i remember that the role of a woman being in a home being the nature taking care of the family first find changes i stayed home when i'm getting more involved in a working scale getting no education and because the social economics we have more single parents they need to determine where now we have more likely and the level
of the women has changed drastically pines we moved on even that that education that that women have gotten an amber career that they want and then to try to be a part of india life it's very difficult lot to have it's extremely critical of that indian women hold onto and maintain our lives involve the traditional aspect of being an indian because if we don't then we're going to lose a completely because the woman is the most important part of the home when it comes to the teaching children and if we're going to have our children continue to swear by then it's up to us as mothers and teachers instill
night at the same time traditional family roles are changing our culture is also being threatened by even more severe problem the loss of our native languages which was owned by the people and when that happens we have to worry and wonder about how long our traditional dances are songs and hers will continue to survive but they serve how to survive with that culture up till today its first religion their native religion and in order to have their own native religion they have to have the language so they surveyed two outstanding qualities that help the bubbles to survive religion and lunch new property and
it's very hard to say be from a community where language is so important for custom and tradition are so important and that we not have grown up and to not know the language that was really difficult i talked to my mother about this as i would ask her about language i would i would ask her what are the same when they say those words when they pray and she would try to explain it to him and she would say i don't know the words she said that's that sound because i know what they mean but i can't explain it in english and she said i don't even think i could explain it in my own language because those are words that are so special that they feel awkward in my mouth the campaign and he made i think that's the sense of
you know that you know that hey it's a good morning to acquire new and i think they can learn a thing they can learn how to pray the right wing union and i want them to think and then actually says garrity because it had just come see you you were sending a pueblo indians in the us if we don't go up speaking it's like oh it's our responsibility to learn a trade i think for a long time has been this expressed fear by tribal elders that somehow we're losing as they were pushing their children to get educated in reducing times their own
tradition and the language in the quarter stadium when asking it's at a stadium i know it would be very sad for me if they do lose the culture but i still want for them to carry it on and that's one of the reasons why i try to reinforce this in the classroom if they can get at how they sure they can get care at school or religious group who is it so we find ourselves
some of the greatest challenges that is lisa why are into the twenty percent you'd for cremation are very bad but i know that i don't consider myself a sophisticated state's mexican nationality here it's
clear that the celebrations there is how it fit this in the past generations of our people have always said as long as we keep believing in and living by the waves of people we will continue as long as the story of a struggle which is like a story of people who deeply love and respect themselves and their culture community and land is told me that people will continue even after four hundred and fifty years he encountered a couple people with white man's country recruiting what will be our
children's future crop still we have the genius of surviving the descendants of congress christa patton has been it's
better to pay for the piece of the pie funding for this program has been provided by the corporation for public broadcasting and by the financial support of viewers like you additional funding has been provided by the rockefeller foundation and the native american public broadcasting consortium tsai yes yes there are eighty eight
Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People
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Vision Maker Media (Lincoln, Nebraska)
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In May 1539, the world of the Pueblo Indians changed forever. Through wild tales & exaggerations, the Zuni city of Hawikuh would be transformed into one of the fabled Seven Golden Cities of Cibola. The following year, Coronado & his soldiers would wreak destruction & violence on this peaceful world in search of non-existent gold.
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Producer: Kruzic, Dale
Producer: Walsh, Larry
Producer: Ladd, Edmund, J.
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Vision Maker Media
Identifier: 2013-00661 (VMM Inventory #)
Format: VHS: S-VHS
Generation: Master
Duration: 1:54:00
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Chicago: “Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People,” 1992-00-00, Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed July 20, 2024,
MLA: “Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People.” 1992-00-00. Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. July 20, 2024. <>.
APA: Surviving Columbus: The Story of the Pueblo People. Boston, MA: Vision Maker Media, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from