Latino Empowerment through Public Broadcasting

Notes

1 Magdaleno Manzanárez, “KBBF, the First Chicano, Bilingual Public Radio: An Alternative Voice in the Era of Media Mega-Mergers” (Paper delivered at the National Association of Chicana and Chicano Studies Conference, Guadalajara, Mexico, July 2006).

2 “Manzanárez, “KBBF,” 4.”

3 Hugo Morales, quoted in Miles Corwin, "A Voice for Farm Workers," Los Angeles Times, August 20, 1989, 3.

4 Monica De La Torre, “‘Programas Sin Vergüenza (Shameless Programs)’: Mapping Chicanas in Community Radio in the 1970s,” Women's Studies Quarterly 43, no. 3/4 (Fall/Winter 2015): 175, http://www.jstor.org/stable/43958561.

5 Manzanárez, “KBBF,” 4.

6 Dolores Inés Casillas, Sounds of Belonging: U.S. Spanish-Language Radio and Public Advocacy (New York: New York University Press, 2014), 54.

7 Casillas, Sounds of Belonging, 64-76.

8 Casillas, Sounds of Belonging, 15-16.

9 Bilingual Broadcasting Foundation, “KBBF,” Santa Rosa: Bilingual Broadcasting Foundation, n.d., https://kbbf.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/KBBF-Old-Brochure-2.jpg.

10 Manzanárez, “KBBF.”

11 Manzanárez, “KBBF.”

12 Monica De La Torre, “Sonic Bridging: Locating, Archiving, and Preserving Spanish-Language and Bilingual Radio in the United States,” New Review of Film and Television Studies 16, no. 4, 448, DOI: 10.1080/17400309.2018.1524969.

13 Manzanárez, “KBBF.”

14 María Martin, quoted in De La Torre, “‘Programas Sin Vergüenza (Shameless Programs)’,” 180.

15 https://kbbf.org/about/.

16 Manzanárez, “KBBF.”

17 Richard Mahler, “Radio: Buenos Dias, America,” Los Angeles Times, March 25, 1979.

18 Hilliard Harper, “NPR Criticized for Canceling Latino Newscast,” Los Angeles Times, February 27, 1988.

19 De La Torre, “Sonic Bridging,” 149.

20 Monica De La Torre, “Feminista Frequencies: Chicana Radio Activism in the Pacific Northwest,” in Chicana Movidas: New Narratives of Activism and Feminism in the Movement Era, ed. Dionne Espinoza, María Eugenia Cotera, and Maylei Blackwell (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2018), 167.

21 De La Torre, “Feminista Frequencies,” 159-60.

22 Kimberlee Craig, “On the Air,” Yakama Herald-Republic, December 17, 1979, in Oscar Rosales Castañeda, “Radio KDNA: The Voice of the Farmworker, 1975-1985," The Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project, https://depts.washington.edu/civilr/farmwk_ch8.htm.

23 De La Torre, “‘Programas Sin Vergüenza (Shameless Programs)’,” 186.

24 Rosa Ramón, quoted in De La Torre, “Feminista Frequencies,” 169.

25 “Our Mission,” KDNA La Voz del Campesino, accessed January 13, 2020, http://www.kdna.org/our-mission/.

26 De La Torre, “Feminista Frequencies,” 172.

27 De La Torre, “Feminista Frequencies,” 171.

28 Corwin, “A Voice for Farm Workers,” 3.

29 Kathleen Teltsch, “Success Is Reaching Out to a Hispanic Organizer,” New York Times, May 9, 1988.

30 “Our Organization and Mission,” Radio Bilingüe, http://radiobilingue.org/en/quienes-somos/historia-y-mision/.

31 Corwin, “A Voice for Farm Workers,” 32.

32 Corwin, “A Voice for Farm Workers,” 32.

33 Casillas, Sounds of Belonging, 52.

34 “Noticiero Latino,” Radio Bilingüe, https://radiobilingue.org/rb-programas/noticiero-latino/.

35 http://radiobilingue.org/en/quienes-somos/historia-y-mision/.

36 “Our Organization and Mission,” Radio Bilingüe; Dolores Inés Casillas, “Sounds of Surveillance: U.S. Spanish-Language Radio Patrols La Migra,” American Quarterly 63, no. 3 (2011): 821, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4123757.

37 “About Us,” La Network Campesina, https://campesina.com/about/.

38 Casillas, Sounds of Belonging, 59.

39 Casillas, Sounds of Belonging, 60.

40 “UFW Radio Station Spreads Labor News,” Los Angeles Times, July 3, 1983.

41 “About Us,” La Network Campesina.

42 Luis Reyes and Peter Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood: A Celebration of 100 Years in Film and Television (Hollywood: Lone Eagle Publishing Co., 2000), 312.

43 Jesús Salvador Treviño, “Latinos and Public Broadcasting: The 2% factor,” Jump Cut, no. 28 (April 1983): 65, https://www.ejumpcut.org/archive/onlinessays/JC28folder/PBSandLatinos.html.

44 Chon A. Noriega, Shot in America: Television, the State, and the Rise of Chicano Cinema (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000), 139.

45 Noriega, Shot in America, 139-43.

46 Elson Trinidad, “October 1968 – ‘Canción de la Raza,’ 1st KCET Program on Latino Community, Premieres,” KCET, September 24, 2014, https://www.kcet.org/kcet-50th-anniversary/october-1968-cancion-de-la-raza-1st-kcet-program-on-latino-community-premieres.

47 "Spanish ‘Sesame Street’ Stimulates Chicano Viewers,” Christian Science Monitor, August 4, 1973.

48 Frederick Williams and Diana S. Natalicio, “Evaluating Carrascolendas: A Television Series for Mexican-American Children,” Journal of Broadcasting 16, no. 3 (Summer 1972), 309; Belinda Acosta, “Have You Ever Been to Carrascolendas? Revisiting Austin’s Award-Winning Bilingual TV Series,” Austin Chronicle, July 4, 2003, https://www.austinchronicle.com/screens/2003-07-04/166689/; “KCET Slates Youth Series,” Los Angeles Times, October 13, 1972; “TV Grants Given to Aid Minority Pupils,” New York Times, July 4, 1973.

49 Spanish ‘Sesame Street,’”; Aida Barrera, Looking for Carrascolendas: From a Child’s World to Award-Winning Television (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2001).

50 Chon A. Noriega, “Imagined Borders: Locating Chicano Cinema in America/América," in The Ethnic Eye: Latino Media Arts, ed. Chon A. Noriega and Ana M. López (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 9.

51 Jesús Salvador Treviño, Eyewitness: A Filmmaker’s Memoir of the Chicano Movement (Houston, TX: Arte Público, 2001), 123.

52 Noriega, “Imagined Borders,” 11-13; Noriega, Shot in America, 150.

53 Lillian Jiménez, “Moving from the Margin to the Center: Puerto Rican Cinema in New York," in The Ethnic Eye: Latino Media Arts, ed. Chon A. Noriega and Ana M. López (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996), 26.

54 Noriega, Shot in America, 150.

55 Jiménez, “Moving from the Margin to the Center,” 25.

56 Noriega, Shot in America, 150-51.

57 Reyes and Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood, 351-52.

58 Reyes and Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood, 351-52.

59 Beatrice Berg, “Anglos Can Watch, Too,” New York Times, December 17, 1972.

60 El Banquiné de Angelitos Negros can be viewed onsite at the Library of Congress and GBH.

61 Noriega, Shot in America, 151.

62 Jiménez, “Moving from the Margin to the Center,” 26; Noriega, Shot in America, 151; Reyes and Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood, 351-52; and Treviño, “Latinos and Public Broadcasting, 65.

63 Reyes and Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood, 574.

64 Reyes and Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood, 366.

65 WGBH, “La Plaza,” Primetime Program Guide, January 1979.

66 Alice Hernandez, Press Release Images/Imagenes, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, revised January 29, 2019.

67 William Q. Sánchez, interview with Alan Gevinson and Gabriela Rivera Marin (American Archive of Public Broadcasting), February 25, 2020.

68 Alice Hernandez, “Images/Imagenes Celebrates Premier on NJTV & the Latino(a) Celebrity Performing Arts Awards,” Rutgers University, New Brunswick, December 11, 2019.

69 Treviño, “Latinos and Public Broadcasting,” 65.

70 Les Brown, "Grant for PBS Latin Series Goes Directly to Producer," New York Times, October 27, 1979, 45.

71 Treviño states that the Oye Willie series was not funded for a second year “for what appear valid reasons.” See Treviño, “Latinos and Public Broadcasting,” 65.

72 Treviño, “Latinos and Public Broadcasting,” 65.

73 Noriega, Shot in America, 152-53; Treviño, “Latinos and Public Broadcasting,” 65.

74 Noriega, Shot in America, 154-58; quote on 154.

75 Galán Incorporated Television & Film, http://www.galaninc.com/site/biography.

76 Carla Hall, “PBS Magazine for Teens Worth Checking Out,” Washington Post, January 9, 1982, C6; Galán Incorporated Television & Film, http://www.galaninc.com/site/filmography/1981/10/checking-it-out-senior-producer/.

77 Hector Galán, quoted in Jason Price, “Galan, Hector,” in The Concise Routledge Encyclopedia of the Documentary Film, ed. Ian Aitken (New York: Routledge, 2013), 280-81.

78 Galán Incorporated Television & Film, http://www.galantvfilm.com/filmography.html; Susan King, “Classic Hollywood: ‘Children of Giant’ Explores Legacy of ‘Giant’ in Marfa, Texas,” Los Angeles Times, April 11, 2005, https://www.latimes.com/entertainment/classichollywood/la-et-mn-ca-classic-hollywood-children-giant-20150412-story.html.

79 Noriega, Shot in America, 181-82.

80 Teresa Puente, “Show Remembers Chicano Struggle,” Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1996.

81 Judith Michaelson, “KCET Breaks with History to Fund ‘Chicano!’ Series,” Los Angeles Times, September 9, 1995.

82 Walter Goodman, “On the Chicano Awakening,” New York Times, April 12, 1996.

83 PBS, “POV at a Glance”, https://www.pbs.org/pov/about/.

84 “Background: About Latino Public Broadcasting,” Latino Public Broadcasting, accessed September 28, 2021, https://lpbp.org/background/.

85 The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer, May 14, 2007, https://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-507-mg7fq9qx2q?start=2409.88&end=3267.52; Democracy Now!, “PBS Criticized for Excluding Latino, Native Voices from WWII Documentary,” April 13, 2007, https://www.democracynow.org/2007/4/13/pbs_criticized_for_excluding_latino_native; Defend the Honor: Claiming Space for Latinos and Latinas in Our Nation’s Consciousness, http://defendthehonor.org.

86 Julia Preston, “Four Centuries, Countless Influences: A PBS Series Documents the Story of Hispanics in America,” New York Times, September 15, 2013. Latino Americans is available through Kanopy: https://www.kanopy.com/product/latino-americans.

87 Jynnah Radford, “Key Findings about U.S. Immigrants,” Pew Research Center, June 17, 2019, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2019/06/17/key-findings-about-u-s-immigrants/.

88 Emma Lazarus, “The New Colossus,” November 2, 1883, as quoted in National Park Service, “Statue of Liberty: National Monument of New York, The New Colossus,” updated August 14, 2019, https://www.nps.gov/stli/learn/historyculture/colossus.htm.

89 Roger Daniels, Coming to America: A History of Immigration and Ethnicity in American Life (New York: HarperCollins, 1990), 265-84.

90 Lyndon B. Johnson, “President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill,” October 3, 1965, LBJ Presidential Library, http://www.lbjlibrary.org/lyndon-baines-johnson/timeline/lbj-on-immigration.

91 Steven M. Gillon, “That’s Not What We Meant to Do”: Reform and Its Unintended Consequences in Twentieth-Century America (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000).

92 Daniels, Coming to America, 338-44.

93 Katherine Witsman, “U.S. Lawful Permanent Resident: 2017,” Annual Flow Report (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Office of Immigration Statistics, August 2018), 2, https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Lawful_Permanent_Residents_2017.pdf.

94 Regina Branton and Johanna Dunaway, “English- and Spanish-Language Media Coverage of Immigration: A Comparative Analysis, Social Science Quarterly, 89, no. 4 (December 2008): 1006-22, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-6237.2008.00596.x.

95 Francisco E. Balderrama and Raymond Rodríguez, Decade of Betrayal: Mexican Repatriation in the 1930s, rev. ed. (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2006); Kevin R. Johnson, “The Forgotten ‘Repatriation’ of Persons of Mexican Ancestry and Lessons for the ‘War on Terror,” 26 Pace Law Review 1 (2005), 1-26, https://digitalcommons.pace.edu/plr/vol26/iss1/1/.

96 Johnson, “The Forgotten ‘Repatriation,’” 2-3, 4.

97 Alicia Schmidt Camacho, Migrant Imaginaries (New York: New York University Press, 2008), 67-68; Bracero History Archive, “About,” Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media, George Mason University, Smithsonian National Museum of American History, Brown University, The Institute of Oral History at the University of Texas at El Paso, 2020, http://braceroarchive.org/about.

98 Marjorie S. Zatz, “Using and Abusing Mexican Farmworkers: The Bracero Program and the INS,” Law & Society Review 27, no. 4 (1993), 860, https://doi:10.2307/3053955.

99 Camacho, Migrant Imaginaries, 108.

100 Kelly Lytle Hernández, “The Crimes and Consequences of Illegal Immigration: A Cross-Border Examination of Operation Wetback, 1943 to 1954,” Western Historical Quarterly 37, no. 4 (Winter 2006), 421-44, https://www.jstor.org/stable/25443415.

101 Kelly Lytle Hernández; quoted in Erin Blakemore, “The Largest Mass Deportation in American History,” HISTORY website, updated June 18, 2019, https://www.history.com/news/operation-wetback-eisenhower-1954-deportation.

102 Hernández, “Crimes and Consequences,” 421.

103 Kelly Lytle Hernández, Migra! A History of the U.S. Border Patrol (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010), 184-97.

104 For further information, see Juan Ramon García, Operation Wetback: The Mass Deportation of Mexican Undocumented Workers in 1954 (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1980).

105 Johnson, “Remarks at the Signing of the Immigration Bill.”

106 Ramón A. Gutierrez, "Mexican Immigration to the United States," Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History, July 29, 2019, https://oxfordre.com/americanhistory/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.001.0001/acrefore-9780199329175-e-146.

107 Jill Lepore, These Truths: A History of the United States (New York: W.W. Norton, 2018), 674-75.

108 James T. Patterson, Restless Giant: The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 296.

109 For further information on the 1965 Act, see Gabriel J. Chin and Rose Cuison Villazor, eds., The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965: Legislating a New America (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015).

110 D’Vera Cohn, “How U.S. Immigration Laws and Rules Have Changed through History,” FactTank: News in the Numbers, Pew Research Center, September 30, 2015, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/09/30/how-u-s-immigration-laws-and-rules-have-changed-through-history/.

111 Gutiérrez, "Mexican Immigration.”

112 Ballotpedia, “California Proposition 187, Illegal Aliens Ineligible for Public Benefits,” https://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_187,_Illegal_Aliens_Ineligible_for_Public_Benefits_(1994).

113 Gustavo Arellano, “Prop. 187 Forced a Generation to Put Fear Aside and Fight. It Transformed California, and Me,” Los Angeles Times, October 29, 2019, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2019-10-29/proposition-187-california-pete-wilson-essay.

114 Fear and Learning at Hoover Elementary can be accessed at https://www.kanopy.com/product/fear-and-learning-hoover-elementary. Additional information can be found at http://archive.pov.org/fearandlearning/film-description/.

115 Ballotpedia,“California Proposition 187.”

116 For further information on California Proposition 187, see Kevin R. Johnson, “Proposition 187 and Its Political Aftermath: Lessons for U.S. Immigration Politics after Trump,” 53 U.C.D. L. Rev. 1859 (2020), https://lawreview.law.ucdavis.edu/issues/53/4/53-4_Johnson.pdf; Kevin R. Johnson, "An Essay on Immigration Politics, Popular Democracy, and California's Proposition 187: The Political Relevance and Legal Irrelevance of Race," 70 Washington Law Review 629 (1995); Kevin R. Johnson, "Public Benefits and Immigration: The Intersection of Immigration Status, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class," 42 UCLA Law Review 1509 (1995).

117 Border Protection, Antiterrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005, H.R. 4437, 109th Cong. (2015), https://www.congress.gov/bill/109th-congress/house-bill/4437.

118 Gutiérrez, "Mexican Immigration."

119 For further information on DACA, see Kevin R. Johnson, “Lessons about the Future of Immigration Law from the Rise and Fall of DACA,” 52 U.C.D. L. Rev. 343 (2018-2019), https://lawreview.law.ucdavis.edu/issues/52/1/Symposium/52-1_Johnson.pdf; Shoba S. Wadhia, “The President and Deportation: DACA, DAPA, and the Sources and Limits of Executive Authority - Response to Hiroshi Motomura,” 55Washburn L.J.189 (2016), https://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1263&context=fac_works.

120 Reilly Frye, “Family Separation under the Trump Administration: Applying an International Criminal Law Framework,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 110, no. 2 (2020): 349, https://www.jstor.org/stable/48572373.

121 Michael D. Shear, Abby Goodnough, and Maggie Haberman, “Trump Retreats on Separating Families, but Thousands May Remain Apart,” New York Times, June 20, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/20/us/politics/trump-immigration-children-executive-order.html.

122 Branton and Dunaway, “English- and Spanish-Language Media Coverage of Immigration.”

123 Casillas, “Sounds of Surveillance,” 811-12.

124 Casillas, “Sounds of Surveillance,” 814.

125 Carol Nagengast, “Militarizing the Border Patrol,” NACLA Report on the Americas, 32, issue 3 (Nov/Dec 1998), DOI: 10.1080/110714839.1998.11725652.

126 “Images/Imágenes Series: Award Winning Leader in Public Broadcasting,” press release, no date.

127 American Archive of Public Broadcasting, “Interview with William Q. Sánchez,” February 25, 2020.

128 Juan Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire: A History of Latinos in America (New York: Penguin Books, 2011), 81.

129 Library of Congress, “Crossing the Straits,” https://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/cuban5.html.

130 Federico Subervi, Joseph Torres, and Daniela Montalvo, Network Brownout Report 2005: The Portrayal of Latinos & Latino Issues on Network Television News, 2004 with a Retrospect to 1995 (Austin and Washington, DC: National Association of Hispanic Journalists, 2005), https://nahj.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/2005-NAHJ-Network-Brownout-Report.pdf.

131 Federico Subervi, “Latinos in TV Network News 2008-2014: Still Mostly Invisible and Problematic,” January 2017, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312577225.

132 Marisa Abrajano and Simran Singh, “Examining the Link Between Issue Attitudes and News Source: The Case of Latinos and Immigration Reform,” Political Behavior 31 (2009), 3.

133 Lisa M. Edwards and Andrea J. Romero, “Coping with Discrimination among Mexican Descent Adolescents,” Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 30, no. 1 (February 2008), 24-39.

134 Elena Flores et al., “Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms, and Health Risk Behaviors Among Mexican American Adolescents,” Journal of Counseling Psychology 57, no. 3 (2010), 264-73.

135 Gabriela Livas Stein et al., “When Discrimination Hurts: The Longitudinal Impact of Increases in Peer Discrimination on Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms in Mexican-origin Youth,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 48 (2019), 864-75, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01012-3.

136 Gloria Stewner-Manzanares, “The Bilingual Education Act: 20 Years Later,” National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, no. 6 (Fall 1988), 1-10, https://ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/BE021037/Fall88_6.pdf.

137 David Nieto, “A Brief History of Bilingual Education in the United States,” Perspectives on Urban Education (Spring 2009), 61-72, https://urbanedjournal.gse.upenn.edu/sites/default/files/pdf_archive/61-72--Nieto.pdf.

138 William J. Bennett, “The Condition of Bilingual Education in the Nation, 1988: A Report to Congress and the President”(Washington: Department of Education, 1988), 1-10.

139 David Nieto, “Brief History of Bilingual Education,” 62.

140 Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire, ix.

141 Ballotpedia, “California Proposition 227, the ‘English in Public Schools’ Initiative (1998),” https://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_227,_the_%22English_in_Public_Schools%22_Initiative_(1998).

142 Ballotpedia, “California Proposition 58, Non-English Languages Allowed in Public Education,” https://ballotpedia.org/California_Proposition_58,_Non-English_Languages_Allowed_in_Public_Education_(2016).

143 Thomas Purnell, William Idsardi, and John Baugh, “Perception and Phonetic Experiments on American English Dialect Identification,” Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18, no. 1 (March 1999), 10-30, DOI: 10.1177/0261927X99018001002.

144 Andrew Hanson and Michael Santas, “Field Experiment Tests for Discrimination against Hispanics in the U.S. Rental Housing Market,” Southern Economic Journal 81, no. 1 (July 2014), 135-67, DOI.10.4284/0038-4038-2012.231.

145 Robert McG. Thomas Jr., “Newark Fire Kills Five in a Tenement,” New York Times, February 5, 1979, D9; Alfonso A. Narvaez, “Major Jersey Cities Find Themselves in the Role of Reluctant Slumlords,” New York Times, February 9, 1979, B3.

146 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “26.8 Million Hispanics or Latinos in the U.S. Labor Force in 2016,” September 25, 2017, https://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2017/26-point-8-million-hispanics-or-latinos-in-the-u-s-labor-force-in-2016.htm?view_full.

147 Mitra Toossi, “A New Look at Long-Term Labor Force Projections to 2050,” Monthly Labor Review, November 2006, 19-39, https://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/11/art3full.pdf.

148 Zatz, “Using and Abusing Mexican Farmworkers,” 851-63.

149 Matt Garcia, “César Chávez and the United Farm Workers Movement,” Oxford Research Encyclopedias, May 2016, DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.217.

150 Federico Subervi, with the collaboration of Vinicio Sinta, “Latinos in TV Network News 2008-2014: Still Mostly Invisible and Problematic,” January 2017, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312577225.

151 Luis Noe-Bustamante and Antonio Flores, “Facts on Latinos in America,” Hispanic Trends, Pew Research Center, January 3, 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/latinos-in-the-u-s-fact-sheet/.

152 Kim Parker et al., “Chapter 7: The Many Dimensions of Hispanic Racial Identity,” in Multiracial in America: Proud, Diverse and Growing in Numbers, Pew Research Center Social & Demographic Trends, June 11, 2015, https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/06/11/chapter-7-the-many-dimensions-of-hispanic-racial-identity/.

153 Clint C. Wilson II, Félix Gutiérrez, and Lena M. Chao, “Chapter 1: Demographics,” in Racism, Sexism, and the Media: Multicultural Issues into the New Communications Age, 4th ed. (Los Angeles: Sage, 2013), 5.

154 Stuart Hall, “Old and New Identities, Old and New Ethnicities,” in Essential Essays, vol. 2 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2019), 1653.

155 Hall, “Old and New Identities,” citing Tariq Modood et al., eds., Ethnic Minorities in Britain: Diversity and Disadvantage (London: Policy Studies Institute, 1997).

156 Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire, 206.

157 Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire, 96.

158 “Mexican - Becoming Part of the United States,” Presentation: Immigration and Relocation in U.S. History, Classroom Materials at the Library of Congress,” accessed September 9, 2020, https://www.loc.gov/classroom-materials/immigration/mexican/becoming-part-of-the-united-states/.

159 Luis Noe-Bustamante, Antonio Flores, and Sono Shah, “Facts on Hispanics of Mexican Origin in the United States, 2017,” Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project, September 16, 2019, https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/u-s-hispanics-facts-on-mexican-origin-latinos/.

160 Sheila Marie Contreras, “Chicana, Chicano, Chican@, Chicanx,” in Keywords for Latina/o Studies, ed. by Deborah R. Vargas, Nancy Raquel Mirabel, and Lawrence La Fontain-Stokes (New York: New York University Press, 2017), 32.

161 Hector Galán, quoted in Teresa Puente, “Show Remembers ‘Chicano’ Struggle,” Chicago Tribune, April 12, 1996, C3.

162 Luis Alberto Urrea, “Mexican-American Author Finds Inspiration in Family, Tragedy and Trump,” interview by Terry Gross, Fresh Air, NPR, March 5, 2018, https://www.npr.org/2018/03/05/590839936/mexican-american-author-finds-inspiration-in-family-tragedy-and-trump.

163 “Luis Alberto Urrea,” U.S. Embassy in Argentina, March 31, 2017, https://ar.usembassy.gov/education-culture/los-angeles-guest-city-buenos-aires-international-book-fair/luis-alberto-urrea/.

164 “Selena Quintanilla,” Texas Women's Hall of Fame – Honorees, Texas Women's University, October 16, 2018, https://twu.edu/twhf/honorees/selena-quintanilla/.

165 John Lannert, “Beloved Selena Enters the Latin Music Hall of Fame,” Billboard, June 10, 1995, Gale OneFile: Popular Magazines, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A17157532/PPPM?u=loc_main&sid=PPPM&xid=092e6c35; “The 30 Most Influential Latin Artists of All Time,” Billboard, April 28, 2015, https://www.billboard.com/photos/6546212/most-influential-latin-artists?i=553955.

166 Matt Garcia, “Cesar Chavez and the United Farm Workers Movement,” Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History, September 2016, https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780199329175.013.217.

167 Reyes and Rubie, Hispanics in Hollywood, 574.

168 “El Teatro Campesino,” Organizational History, UC Santa Barbara Library, https://www.library.ucsb.edu/special-collections/cema/etc.

169 “Zoot Suit,” Golden Globe Awards, January 1, 1982, https://www.goldenglobes.com/film/zoot-suit.

170 “La Bamba,” Golden Globe Awards, January 1, 1988, https://www.goldenglobes.com/film/la-bamba.

171 National Geographic Society, “Dia De Los Muertos,” National Geographic Society, November 9, 2012, https://www.nationalgeographic.org/media/dia-de-los-muertos/.

172 https://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/jonesact.html.

173 José Trías Monge, Puerto Rico: The Trials of the Oldest Colony in the World (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997).

174 Luis Noe-Bustamante, Antonio Flores, and Sono Shah, “Facts on Hispanics of Puerto Rican Origin in the United States, 2017,” Pew Research Center's Hispanic Trends Project, September 16, 2019, https://www.pewresearch.org/hispanic/fact-sheet/latinos-in-the-u-s-fact-sheet/.

175 Raquel Ortiz, interview with Gabriela Rivera Marin (American Archive of Public Broadcasting), May 15, 2020.

176 1996 Peabody Awards entry form, University of Georgia, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection; quoted in “Mi Puerto Rico,” 1996-01-16, The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed August 19, 2020, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-526-gt5fb4xr26.

177 Piri Thomas, Down These Mean Streets (New York: Vintage Books, 1991).

178 “Piri Thomas,” Oxford Reference, accessed July 18, 2020, https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803104006357.

179 Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire, 240.

180 cpb-aacip/507-4t6f18sz65.

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201 Lisandro Pérez, "Cubans in the United States," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487 (September 1986): 126-37, http://www.jstor.com/stable/1046058; John Scanlan and Gilburt Loescher, “U.S. Foreign Policy, 1959-80: Impact on Refugee Flow from Cuba, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 467 (May 1983), 116-18, http://www.jstor.com/stable/1044932.

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213 Gonzalez, Harvest of Empire, 242-44.

214 Tony Fletcher, All Hopped Up and Ready to Go: Music from the Streets of New York, 1927-1977 (New York: W. W. Norton, 2009), 1-21.

215 Scanlan and Loescher, “U.S. Foreign Policy, 1959-80: Impact on Refugee Flow from Cuba,” 130-37.

216 William M. LeoGrande and Peter Kornbluh, Back Channel to Cuba: The Hidden History of Negotiations between Washington and Havana (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2014), 214-18.

Curators

Alexandra García

Intern, Library of Congress Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) National Internship Program

Gabriela Rivera

Intern, Library of Congress Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) National Internship Program